In this blog I have been discussing different approaches to mindfulness and mindfulness meditation that are self-initiated and self-directed in the main. Some of the approaches to mindfulness discussed entailed the involvement of a teacher or mentor to guide the participant through various forms of meditation.
One such approach is provided by the Power of Awareness Mindfulness Training conducted online by Jack Kornfield and Tara Brach. Even in this course, led by teachers and mentors, there is ample scope for participants to pick and choose what types of meditations and mindfulness practices they will focus on – the choices are not individually focused or directed.
What is different about Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
ACT as the name suggests is an approach that provides therapists with a structured approach to mindfulness development for their clients. This approach is therapist-led with a defined sequence of exercises designed to enable clients to move from the entrapment of destructive thinking to taking effective action guided by their values (committed action). Colleagues vouch for the fact that ACT often achieves the desired results in therapeutic situations.
ACT aims to enable clients to experience a full, rich and meaningful life that is built on internal and external awareness. The approach actively discourages ineffective avoidance strategies and encourages acceptance of pain as a natural part of a life that is lived fully. Just as mindfulness trainers are exhorted to deepen their mindfulness practice, so too ACT therapists are encouraged to practise the ACT approach and exercises to be able to act more consciously and effectively in therapy sessions.
The ACT approach to mindfulness
Mindfulness in the context of ACT is defined by Russ Harris, author of ACT Made Simple, in terms of the quality of paying attention:
Mindfulness means paying attention with flexibility, openness and curiosity.
In this definition, mindfulness is explained in terms of three key elements – awareness through paying attention, an open attitude and flexible attention enabling a narrow or wider focus or a focus on the internal or the external.
ACT incorporates six core processes as part of its therapeutic approach:
- Being here now – consciously focusing on the here-and-now, including our inner and outer worlds. Fundamentally, it is about being present in the moment, rather than lost in thought.
- Watch what you are thinking – this involves standing back from your thoughts and observing them in a detached way. It means not entertaining them and being caught up in them as if they are reality. Mindfulness expert, Kabat-Zinn suggests that we view our thoughts as bubbles in boiling water floating to the surface and bursting. He provides the liberating idea that “we are not our thoughts” nor should we be captured by the “narratives” in our head. In ACT, the process of observing our thinking is called “cognitive defusion”.
- Accepting and being open to painfulness – Russ Harris describes this process as “making room for painful feelings, sensations, urges, and emotions”. ACT provides exercises to develop this acceptance. In our mindfulness discussions, we have offered mindfulness practices such as forgiveness meditation to address this pain and suffering.
- Observing yourself – ACT encourages awareness through getting in touch with the “observing self” rather than the “thinking self”. Russ Harris describes the former as “the aspect of us that is aware of whatever we’re thinking, feeling, sensing or doing in any moment”. Mindfulness practitioners encourage meditation practices like somatic meditation to develop this awareness.
- Knowing what matters – getting in touch with the way we want to be in the world (our values). Values guide behaviour, give meaning to our lives and facilitate decision making. Consciousness about our values can enable us to lead our lives with energy and vitality and provide mindful leadership for others.
- Doing what it takes – this involves doing what it takes, despite pain and discomfort, to live out our values in daily life (described as “committed action” in ACT). It requires congruence between our words and actions and a readiness to commit to “valued living”.
ACT is a therapeutic approach that aims to help clients grow in mindfulness in order to lead a life that is richer and more meaningful, while reducing the impact of harmful thoughts and narratives and pain-avoidance.
By Ron Passfield – Copyright (Creative Commons license, Attribution–Non Commercial–No Derivatives)
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